It is an obligate parasite of plant roots and, though itself nonpathogenic, is responsible for the transmission of several very important plant viruses, including barley yellow mosaic virus baymv and soilborne wheat mosaic virus sbwmv. Disease severity was in the range of 79 in conventional cropping system. Many paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole3acetic acid iaa, and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. The investigated fungus differs by several characteristics from the only so far known species polymyxa graminis ledingham and was described as a new species polymyxa betae n. Paenibacillus polymyxa, also known as bacillus polymyxa, is a grampositive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. Bradley, in principles and practice of pediatric infectious diseases fifth edition, 2018.
Serological methods for detection of polymyxa graminis, an obligate root parasite and vector of plant viruses. Augustine, zoysia decline, root decline diagnostic tips. Runner hyphae is darkly pigmented, septate and well branched hyphopodia are darkly pigmented, deeply lobed with a dissecting microscope look for run. Langen3 1 university of aleppo, faculty of agriculture, aleppo, syria 2 department of plant protection, lebanese agricultural research institute, tal amara, p. Vaianopoulos c, bragard c, moreau v, maraite h, legreve a 2007. Bymovirus polymyxa graminis effect of cropping system on di. Characterization of polymyxa species by restriction. Pdf detection of polymyxa graminis in a barley crop in the. It is found in soil, plant tissues, and marine sediments. Anatomical properties of each stage were described, including the transition from.
Differential interference contrast, laser confocal, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy were used to study developmental anatomy of sporangial and sporogenic plasmodia, zoosporangia, sporosori and resting spores of polymyxa graminis in roots of triticum aestivum grown in infested field soil. Bymovirus polymyxa graminis effect of cropping system on. Morphology and host range of polymyxa graminis, polymyxa. Sixteen grampositive endosporeforming bacteria previously isolated from soil, plant rhizospheres, plant roots and pasteurized pureed vegetables were studied to determine their taxonomic positions. Correlation of polymyxa graminis with transmission of soil. The plasmodiophorid polymyxa graminis transmits plant viruses to cereal crops such as wheat, rye, barley and triticale. Future challenges in virus transmission by polymyxa dial. Several of these viruses cause major widespread diseases on barley, wheat and groundnut in africa, asia, europe and north america reddy et al. Paenibacillus polymyxa previously bacillus polymyxa is an agriculturally important microbe widely studied for its plant growthpromoting abilities. Pdf detection of polymyxa graminis in a barley crop in australia. Dynamics of polymyxa graminis and indian peanut clump virus. Molecular methods for the detection of polymyxa graminis f. This article is within the scope of wikiproject plants, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of plants and botany on wikipedia. Polymyxa graminis is a eukaryotic obligate biotrophic parasite of plant roots that belongs to a poorly studied discrete taxonomic unit informally called the plasmodiophorids.
Barrmorphology and host range of polymyxa graminis, polymyxa betae and ligniera pilorum from ontario and some other areas. Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic that is a natural product isolated from bacillus polymyxa and consists of 10 linked amino acids, with 6 forming a peptide ring structure attached to a fatty acid side chain. The plasmodiophorid polymyxa graminis transmits plant viruses to. Paenibacillus polymyxa an overview sciencedirect topics. Serological methods for detection of polymyxa graminis, an. The host range of polymyxa graminis isolates originating from peanut clumpinfested areas in india andhra pradesh and rajasthan, pakistan and senegal was studied on monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous cultivated species, using known quantities of sporosori as inoculum. For example, various fungicides failed to control transmission of baymv to winter barley by polymyxa graminis proeseler and kastirr, 1988. Both polymyxa graminis and polymyxa betae were identified. The host range of polymyxa graminis isolates originating from peanut clumpinfested areas in india andhra pradesh and rajasthan, pakistan and senegal was studied on monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous cultivated species, using known quantities of.
Polymyxa graminis is the vector of bymoand furovirus responsible for several cereal diseases in temperate areas. Pdf on jan 1, 1980, jeanclaude thouvenel and others published polymyxa graminis on new sorghum species in africa find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Box 287, zahle, lebanon 3 institute for phytopathology and applied zoology. Download fulltext pdf identification and quantification of polymyxa graminis f. Rye was also a good host, whereas oats nine cultivars, lolium multiflorum and poa pratensis became only slightly infected. Studies on transmission of indian peanut clump virus. Polymyxa graminis ledingham ledingham, 1939 is a common obligate parasite of the roots of poaceae. Correlation of polymyxa graminis with transmission of soilborne wheat mosaic virus. Polymyxa graminis is a species of plasmodiophorid cercozoans.
Phylogenetic analysis of polymyxa species based on nuclear 5. Viruliferous resting spores can survive in the soil for over 10 years richardmolard, 1985 and germinate when suitable environmental conditions arise, releasing primary zoospores. Infection of cereals and grasses by isolates of polymyxa. Pdf host range of tropical and subtropical isolates of. Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plantgrowth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Polymyxa graminis is an obligate parasite and important vector of more. Studies on transmission of indian peanut clump virus disease. Jacquierinfection of cereals and grasses by isolates of polymyxa graminis plasmodiophorales. Pdf the development of simple methods for the maintenance.
It is commonly found in the agricultural soils, especially in close association with plants, and has. Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Postinfection development of polymyxa graminis in roots of. It is particularly important as the vector of several plant viruses, including barley yellow mosaic baymv, barley mild mosaic bammv, wheat spindle streak mosaic, wheat yellow mosaic and soil borne wheat mosaic viruses. Polymyxa graminis is an obligate parasite and important vector of more than 14 soilborne plant viruses that pose a significant threat to cereal crops in europe, north. Pdf dynamics of polymyxa graminis and indian peanut. Polymyxa graminis was detected in the roots of barley plants from a field near wondai, queensland, in 2009. Over the past 20 years, the use of varieties with resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus or to cereal mosaic viruses such as barley yellow mosaic. Ultrastructural studies of resting spore development in. The temperature requirements of three single cystosorus strains of polymyxa sp. It is an obligate parasite of plant roots and, though itself nonpathogenic, is responsible for the transmission of several very important plant viruses, including barley yellow mosaic virus baymv and. The host range of isolates of polymyxa was tested in mono.
We do not use these to store personal information about you. Distribution of two formae speciales of polymyxa graminis in. The objective of this study was to investigate the specificity of the interactions between polymyxa graminis, peanut clump virus pcv, and cereals, particularly the acquisition and the transmission of the virus by three p. Zoospore ultrastructure of polymyxa graminis plasmodiophoromycetes.
Detection of polymyxa graminis in a barley crop in. Polymyxa graminis on new sorghum species in africa. Pdf identification and quantification of polymyxa graminis. Evidence that polymyxa species may infect arabidopsis. Profuse multiplication occurred only on some graminaceous species, but the various isolates showed different host. The susceptibility of 6 pearl millet ankoutess, icmv is 89305, icmv is 92222, icmv is 94206, sadore local and zatib and 6 sorghum irat 204, mota maradi, nad 1, sariaso 10, sepon 82 and zinder local accessions to peanut clump virus and its vector polymyxa graminis was evaluated during the rainy season of 2002 under field conditions in sadore, niger. Pdf polymyxa graminis was detected in the roots of barley plants from a field near wondai, queensland, in 2009. Oct 18, 2016 paenibacillus polymyxa is a plantgrowth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Current knowledge and perspectives of paenibacillus. Morphology and host range of polymyxa graminis, polymyxa betae, and ligniera pilorum from ontario and some other areas.
Occurrence of polymyxa graminis ribotypes in germany and. If you are unable to see the pdf link please follow the direct links to the pdf available on all issue table of contents pages and latest articles listing pages. Polymyxa graminis, a root endoparasite of several cereal species, is considered to be nonpathogenic but serves as a vector of various plant viruses belonging to the genera bymovirus, furovirus, and pecluvirus. Dynamics of polymyxa graminis and indian peanut clump. This is the first report of infection of arabidopsis by polymyxa spp. Polymyxa graminis and the cereal viruses it transmits. The isolates were formerly identified as bacillus circulans based on their biochemical characters using api galleries. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or. Strong evidence indicates p graminis also transmits peanut clump virus pcv in west africa and india, but apparently does not persist nor reproduce in the roots of peanut as it does in millet, sorghum, wheat and numerous monocotyledonous weeds delfosse et al. Several fungicides prevented infection of sugar beet by bnyvv in greenhouse trials, but were ineffective in the field, even at high rates of application hein, 1987. Dna was extracted from zoospores, resting spores and roots infected with p.
Identification and quantification of polymyxa graminis f. The development of simple methods for the maintenance and quantification of polymyxa graminis article pdf available in indian journal of microbiology 564 july 2016 with 178 reads. Peanut clump virus and polymyxa graminis interactions with. Polymyxa graminis is an obligate parasite and important vector of more than 14 soilborne plant viruses that pose a significant threat to cereal. All 63 wheat root samples were infected with ribotype i of p. Differences in temperature requirements between polymyxa. Polymyxa graminis is the vector of several important viruses, including soilborne cereal mosaic virus, wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, barley yellow mosaic virus and barley mild mosaic virus, of winter cereals worldwide.
The development of simple methods for the maintenance and. In order to evaluate whether or not host specialization is associated with the special form, the occurrence of infection of both forms on barley and wheat was studied. Pdf polymyxa graminis on new sorghum species in africa. Paenibacillus polymyxa is an endosporeforming bacterium that is nonpathogenic and found in environments such as plant roots in soil and marine sediment 12. Detection and relative quantitation of soilborne cereal. To date, due to its obligate biotrophic property, no artificial culturing of p.
Colistin is also known as polymyxin e, structurally. Dynamics of polymyxa graminis and indian peanut clump virus ipcv infection on various monocotyledonous crops and groundnut during the rainy season. Acquisition and transmission of peanut clump virus by. A new distribution map is provided for polymyxa graminis ledingham. Confirmation of polymyxa graminis as a vector of wheat. Information is given on the geographical distribution in europe belgium, france. In assay tests, mixed infection of barley yellow mosaic virus baymv and barley mild mosaic virus bammv was observed. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks. Soil samples from different locations and cereal host plants were analyzed for the presence of p. Characterization of polymyxa species by restriction analysis. Pdf investigation of soilborne mosaic virus diseases.
Specifically, it reduces barley productivity by transmitting the barley yellow mosaic virus baymv. The progress of indian peanut clump virus hyderabad isolate. A molecular method is described to aid identification of the obligate parasite polymyxa and discriminate between species p. Pdf ribotypes of polymyxa graminis in wheat samples. Polymyxa graminis polmgroverview eppo global database. Sbcmv is transmitted by the soilborne plasmodiophorid polymyxa graminis, virus particles are transported within resting spores and zoospores of the vector. The plasmodiophoromycete fungus, polymyxa graminis was observed in the roots of sorghum bicolor, s. Detection of polymyxa graminis in a barley crop in australia.630 624 1006 148 1140 1181 439 1679 103 1577 541 1371 488 563 537 782 355 1634 923 853 1531 953 1618 62 1264 429 298 1151 569 5 422 1255 291 1051 496